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  • Sukhothai素可泰
  • [北部]
  • 文化交流,休閒旅遊

黃金時代撫今追昔,思古之情令人悠然神往
發掘文明內涵
 
 
如果要尋訪泰國文明的起源,走一趟素可泰絕對不會令您失望!因為這個位居曼谷以北 440 公里的地區,不但是泰國的第一個首都,也是文化根源的搖籃,有關泰國的文字、藝術、文化與法規,很多都是由素可泰時代開始創立的。素可泰的原意是「幸福的黎明」,乃昔日泰族稱強時期的首都,自 1257 年到 1436 年這段期間,在歷史上稱為「素可泰王朝」,之後再經歷了所謂的「大城王朝」、「吞武里王朝」,然後至目前的「拉達那哥辛王朝」,因此在歷史的演變過程中,這兒扮演著一個非常重要的角色,同時也遺留著昔日的佛寺和宮殿燦爛的光華,在豐采中散發著一股古樸的氣氛!
於西元 1238 年以前,素可泰原本屬於柬埔寨( Ramkhamhaeng )國王的領導之下,終於獲得獨立,並把素可泰的國土版圖擴充為原來的 10 倍。蘭坎亨是素可泰最著名的君王,在他 19 歲那一年,曾經追隨父親與鄰國對坑,後來於戰爭中英勇克敵,因此他的父親冊封他為「勇敢的拉瑪」。在西元 1257~1379 年則是素可泰王朝的全盛時期,那時勢力範圍甚至遠及馬來半島,由於此地是位於泰國北部的扇狀地帶,土壤肥沃、物產豐饒,也因而奠定了經濟與文化的基礎。
 
蘭坎亨是第一位替泰國留下詳盡碑銘記載的國王,同時他亦利用高棉文、梵文、及巴里文,成功的創造發明了泰國文字。
本地是泰國文明的精華區,由於當時流行信仰小乘佛教( Theravada ),所以迄今城內仍然保有許多古寺,聯合國教育科學文化組織( UNESCO ),於 1991 年 12 月將素可泰歷史公園列入世界級古蹟之一,為維護以及研究此地的豐富文化與遺跡,還提供專款,鼓勵專業人員進行致力保存遺產的工作。近年來,當地政府並積極擬出恢復素可泰舊觀的計劃,大力修繕所有的斷壁傾牆,將境內的古蹟寺廟修刷一新,重新建成國家歷史文物保護區。
素可泰歷史文物保護區範圍相當廣闊,包括南北城垣各長 2 千公尺,東西各長 1600 公尺,也就是古都城垣的總面積。保護區內重現出古代的歷史君王宮殿和許多名剎,遊客到此可以看到 6 、 7 百年前泰民族偉大的遺跡。
由於此地是一個極富有文化內涵的古都,所以觀光景點也以古蹟為主,尤其泰人在此時期的政治制度、建築與藝術表現,都顯現於寺廟與佛像的造型與線條上,頗具原創力。通常想要一天參觀完畢這些藝術精華是太過於匆忙的,因此遊客可以透過完整安排,仔細規劃行程,才不會入寶山空手而歸!
彭世洛( Phitsanulok ) -- 素可泰的姊妹市
 
彭世洛距離素可泰大約 35 哩處,常被視為迎接旅客前往素可泰的基地,在西元 1960 年的時候,因為受到祝融的肆虐,因此舊城幾乎在當時付之一炬。楠河( Nan River )流貫其間,可看到許多水上房屋和船隻泊在河上,有些已改裝為餐廳,供旅客用餐並欣賞風景。
瑪哈泰寺( Wat Mahathat )是彭世洛最重要的、也是聞名全國的廟宇,建於大城時期,是一座鍍金的高棉式圓頂佛塔,其中所祭祀的神明為帕欽那萊( Phra Buddha Chinnarat ),寺內收藏了各種不同時期的佛像,深具藝術價值。目前由曼谷清邁、蘇梅皆有航空班機每天飛往彭世洛,可洽詢泰國航空公司;若要前往素可泰,可先飛抵彭世洛後,再以陸路交通方式到素可泰。

 

旅遊素可泰運輸工具,海陸空方式暢遊無阻
航空( By Air )
搭乘泰航 (02-25096800) 、長榮 (02-25011999) 、荷航 (02-27722188) 、華航 (02-27151212) 等班機,由台北直飛曼谷之後,再轉搭國內班機。目前曼谷航空是唯一由曼谷飛往素可泰的航空公司,飛行時間僅需 1 小時。曼谷航空預約訂位電話(曼谷): (02) 229-3434 、 229-3456 ,也可搭乘泰國航空從曼谷到彭世洛 ( 每週有 35 班,由曼谷飛往彭世洛,航班時間可洽: (02-25096800) 再轉搭雙條公車。
 
巴士( By Bus )
除了航空交通外,也可由曼谷乘巴士直達此地,巴士分為普通和冷氣車兩種,若要搭車可由位於 Kamphaeng Phet 2 路上的「巴士北站」 Northem Bus Terminal 搭乘即可,每天發車 10 個班次,車程約 6 小時,若需詳細車班時間可電洽巴士北站 Tel: 9363660 。網址: www.transport.co.th 。
 
火車( By Train )
目前曼谷尚無火車前往素可泰,需先乘火車抵達彭世洛,然後轉搭巴士前往素可泰,兩地相距50公里,車程約一小時。請洽詢泰國鐵路局,電話:223-3762,網站:www.railway.co.th;www.thailandrailway.com。
 
旅遊行程規劃
想要來一些有趣的市區參觀方式嗎?從新城(New Sukhothai)到舊城(Old Sukhothai-Historical Park),建議您可以安排以下兩種旅遊方式:
A. 迷你巴士(Mini Bus)
迷你巴士中心(The Minibus Centre)靠近帶樂電影院(Charot-Withi-Thong Road)的派出所(Police Box)。迷你巴士早上6時至下午5時30分之間每1分鐘一班,古城與新城之間相距12公里,車程約需20分鐘。
B. 嘟嘟車(Tuk Tuk)
是一種三輪車,從古城到新城間大約需15分鐘。

 

11 月 / 水燈節( Loi Krathong And Candle Festival )
在泰曆 12 月 15 日月圓時,素可泰地區最具傳統風味的慶典,泰國人將木船作成蓮花狀,放在水中或溪上漂流,同時將清香的花和香柱、蠟燭或是一枚硬幣放在船中,表示對水神虔誠的敬意,也將前一年所犯的過錯洗滌乾淨。
 
素可泰之夜 (Sukhothai Night)
1-4 月
素可泰歷史公園
為了紀念這段光輝的歷史,將舉行歷史文物展、傳統文化遊行、民俗表演及聲光秀的演出,及其他慶祝活動。提供給遊客一個難得機會,藉由迷你聲光演出,悠遊在泰國王朝偉大歷史中。
4 月 / 素可泰傳統佛教出家儀式
每年 4 月在素可泰的席查那來,年輕的和尚穿著色彩鮮艷的僧袍,騎坐在大象上遊行至 Hat Siao 寺,舉行盛大的正式出家典禮。同時這裡還會舉行不同的傳統活動。

 



吃喝玩樂應注意事項,旅遊備忘盡在錦囊中
暢遊古城 – 素可泰
每天開放時間為上午 8:00 至下午 17:00 。古城附近有單車、摩托車出租店,您可以騎著車悠閒的穿梭在佛影蓮池之間。
 
購物( Shopping )
素可泰文化中心( Sukhothai Cultural Centre ):
位於靠近老城區( Sukhothai Historical Park )的地方,販賣各式當地手工藝品及精緻的衣料、服飾、古董、籐製品、泰絲、棉織品等,非常值得一遊。
 
素可泰黃金製品
素可泰的黃金飾品,雕工細膩,以 99.99 的純金,根據素可泰時期所遺留下來的樣式去仿製雕塑,諸如耳環、項鍊、手環、戒指、珠寶盒等,花樣繁多,許多泰國人會到素可泰購買金飾,泰國皇室也會到這裡購買,更外銷到世界各國,有興趣的民眾可到 Supaporn 黃金村,電話: (055) 679122-3 。
 
Hadsiao 棉織村
這裡的棉織品保留傳統的技藝,全由手工織成,每件棉織品都有不同的特色,特殊的織法配上美麗的顏色,非常漂亮。有趣興的遊客,千萬不要錯過。
 
Kingdom Of Father Ceramics :
距離素可泰史蹟公園大約有 2 公里,提供各種素可泰時期設計風格的陶製品,如果對民俗藝品有興趣的旅客,可以前往採購一番。 
 

 


參考網站 (Internat)
1. 泰國飯店: www.hotelthailand.com 、 www.thaihotels.org
2. 旅遊網站: www.tat.or.th 、 www.sawadee.com
3.Golf 網站: www.tga.or.th adise.com
 
當地緊急協助單位與實用電話指南( Useful Telephone )

旅遊服務專線

觀光警察:拿起電話直撥 1155 ,有英德、法

三種語文, 24 小時

或直撥旅客服務中心 1672 ,時間從 0800-2000

青年旅遊服務中心

電話: (02) 694-1222 1781-90

泰國觀光局彭世洛辦事處

電話: (055) 252742-3  

駐泰國台北經貿辦事處

20F, Empire Tower, 195, Sathon Tai Rd., Bangkok

電話: (02) 670-0228 傳真: (02) 670-0229


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