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  • Ayutthaya大城
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輝煌歷史臻至顛峰,大城古都泰國文化發祥地
 
大城( Ayutthaya )距離曼谷北方約 100 公里處,自西元 1350 年至西元 1767 年,曾為泰國第二個首都,不但是年份最久的首都,在東南亞地區更是首屈一指,有四百多年的輝煌歷史,佛教精髓在此達到顛峰,並深植於泰國文化中。人們說素可泰是泰國第一個首都,也是泰國歷史古蹟的發祥地,而大城則像一個手藝精湛的雕刻家,當地的寺廟、皇宮及佛像的鏤刻,無不表現出莊嚴典雅的作品。因此,大城輝煌階段的藝術品,可說是經典名作,當時繁榮的景象,均被許多文獻記載喻為人間的天堂,而這段黃金時期,西方的文明也開始接觸泰國,大城是當時主要的貿易中心,也有許多國家的人來此定居,最具體的證據是區內散佈的葡萄牙村、荷蘭村與日本村可得到驗證。

大城位於湄南河、洛汶里河、巴洒河三條河流交會處的一座小平原上,距離海洋不遠,而且四周環繞著肥沃的稻田,是非常理想的行政和交通中心,因此西元 1350 年時由拉瑪迪波里一世( Ramathibodi I )正式建立為國都,在 17 世紀全盛時期,它甚至控制了整個中央平原和南方。遠東地區、世界各地的船隻都溯著湄南河而上,進行貿易往來的商業行為,當時人口超過 100 萬,其中包括印度人、中國人、日本人和歐洲各國人,可說是盛況空前,民生富裕。
雖然曾經絢麗萬千,但是大城的燦爛時期終有結束的一天,由於內部的衝突不斷,以及皇室宮廷的逐漸衰弱,使得西元 1767 年時,本城遭受緬甸軍隊的徹底破壞,就連寺廟大佛也難倖免,之後終於滅亡。還好達幸王在不久之後又光復了國土,把緬甸軍趕走,並於湄南河南邊建立了吞府,而拉瑪一世再遷都至曼谷,發展至今。目前大城所殘留的歷史古蹟,彷彿正幽幽地訴說著昔日耐人尋味的輝煌過往。
 
大城位於湄南河東岸,總人口約 9 萬,現在是泰國內地的商業中心。由於大城的 33 位統治者吸收了高棉天授神權的觀念
,揉和婆羅門教的儀式,因此興建了許多壯麗美觀的宮殿和雄偉萬千的佛寺,如今觀光客可以見到大部份遺跡,就是建於此城市興起時的前 150 年內。大城更於 1991 年 12 月 13 日被聯合國教科文組織( Unesco )評定為世界級保護古蹟之一。
大城遺跡中有非常多的佛塔,想要一次遊遍需花很多時間,建議您不防挑選幾個最具代表性的寺廟參觀,像瓦崖差蒙空寺、 帕楠稱寺、帕蘭寺、帕席桑碧寺、 拉嘉布拉那寺等。另外還有收集稀世珍品的國立博物館,拉瑪五世皇夏宮所在地的邦芭茵,位於湄南河下游的日本遺跡鎮等,也是很值得參觀的重要景點。


 

*航空 (By Air)
可搭乘泰航 (02-25096800,02-25096800) 、長榮 (02-25011999,02-25011999) 、荷航 (02-27722188,02-27722188) 、華航 (02-27151212              02-27151212      ) 等飛機抵達曼谷。
 
*計程車 (By Taxi)
曼谷計程車有 ”Taxi” 與 ”Taxi Meter” 兩種。前者以叫價為主,後者以跳表為主, 35 元起跳。另有三輪計程車,稱為 ”Tuk Tuk” 嘟嘟車,適合短程,須談好價錢再上車。
 
*公車 (By Bus)
曼谷巴士分為公營與私營兩種,每種又區分普通巴士及冷氣巴士。
*由曼谷國際機場到市區的交通
1.    國際及國內的入境大廳前也有計程車招呼站,按里程計費。走高速道路,過路費須由乘客自付。
2.    機場巴士:國際及國內航空站均設有巴士站牌分四條路線 A1: 機場 -- 席隆路; A2: 機場 --SA NAM LUANG ; A3: 機場 --SUKHUMVIT 路 (SOI THONGLOR) ; A4: 機場 —Hua Lamphong 火車站。從凌晨 4:30 至半夜 12:30 ,費用每人約 100~150 左右。
3.    租車:國際第一航空站的入境大廳有 AVIS 租車櫃檯,國內航站則也有其他家租車公司,費用依一日或一週分。
4.    公車:機場前面有公車站牌,非冷氣公車有 3 條路線: 29 號 -- 機場至曼谷火車站, 59 路 -- 機場至 THE EMERALD 佛寺, 95 號 -- 機場經 RAM-INTRA 路再到 RAM KHAMHANG 路。冷氣公車有 4 條路線: 4 號 -- 機場至席隆路, 29 號 -- 機場經勝利紀念碑再到曼谷火車站, 10 號 -- 機場經勝利紀念碑到南區巴士總站, 13 號 -- 機場經 SUKHUMVIT 路到東區巴士總站。
5.    曼谷到芭達雅可搭泰航接駁巴士,每天有 3 班, 9 點、12 點、19 點,或搭計程車,或搭機場巴士到公車東站轉搭往芭達雅的公車。巴士東站:電話 (02) 391-8097 , 391-2504


 

*退稅服務
在有標示 “VAT REFUND FOR TOURISTS” 的商店購物,購買商品的總金額必須超過 $5,000 泰幣,在同一家商店購買金額不得少於 $2,000 泰幣,即可向商店索取退稅申請表。想要申報退稅者,必須再提前 30 分鐘到達泰國各國際機場,以備有充份時間完成所有申報的流程。所帶物品請隨身攜帶,以利檢查。
 
*氣溫
全年平均氣溫約 28 度, 3-5 月氣溫約 35~40 度,雨季 6~10 月,多為雷陣雨。
 
*參考網站 (Internet)
1. 泰國飯店: www.hotelthailand.com 、 www.thaihotels.org
2. 旅遊網站: www.tourismthailand.org 、 www.sawadee.com
3. 曼谷捷運: www.bts.co.th
4.Golf 網站: www.tga.or.th
5.Thai Spa 網站: www.thaispaassociation.com
6. 鐵路局網站: www.railway.co.th 、 www.thailandrailway.com
 
*當地緊急協助單位與實用電話指南( Useful Telephone )
觀光警察
直撥 1155 ,有英、德、法三種語文, 24 小時
旅客服務中心
直撥 1672 ,時間從 8:00~20:00 ,週一至週日
青年旅遊服務中心
電話: 2694-1222 1781-90
泰國觀光局曼谷總局
1600 New Phetchaburi Rd., Makkasan, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400
電話: 2250-5500 ,傳真: 22505511
駐泰國台北經貿辦事處
20F, Empire Tower, 195, Sathon Tai Rd., Bangkok
電話: 2670-0228 傳真: 2670-0229

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